It’s one of the deadliest creatures on Earth: The infamous box jellyfish developed its powerful venom to be so overpoweringly painful, human victims have been known to go into shock or die of heart failure within minutes of a sting.

But researchers are closing in on an antidote to the venom of this much-feared creature, which carries enough venom to kill more than 60 humans.

Scientists from the University of Sydney have identified an antidote to the venom of the Chironex fleckeri (the bigger of the two types of box jellyfish) that blocks the symptoms of a sting if administered to the skin within 15 minutes after contact.

The antidote was shown to work on human cells outside the body and then tested effectively on live mice. Researchers now hope to develop a topical application for humans.

Box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) wounds to leg. (Photo Credit: Auscape / UIG via Getty Images)

“We were looking at how the venom works, to try to better understand how it causes pain. Using new CRISPR genome editing techniques we could quickly identify how this venom kills human cells. Luckily, there was already a drug that could act on the pathway the venom uses to kill cells, and when we tried this drug as a venom antidote on mice, we found it could block the tissue scarring and pain related to jellyfish stings,” said Associate Professor Greg Neely. “It is super exciting.”

The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, used CRISPR whole genome editing to identify how the venom works. Genome editing is a technology that allows scientists to add, remove or alter genetic material in an organism’s DNA.

In the study, the researchers took a vat of millions of human cells and knocked out a different human gene in each one. Then they added the box jellyfish venom — which kills cells at high doses — and looked for cells that survived. From the whole genome screening, the researchers identified human factors that are required for the venom to work.

“The jellyfish venom pathway we identified in this study requires cholesterol, and since there are lots of drugs available that target cholesterol, we could try to block this pathway to see how this impacted venom activity. We took one of those drugs, which we know is safe for human use, and we used it against the venom, and it worked,” said Dr Raymond (Man-Tat) Lau, lead author on the paper. “It’s a molecular antidote.”

Lau said he hasn’t seen a study like this for any other venom.

“We know the drug will stop the necrosis, skin scarring and the pain completely when applied to the skin,” said Neely, who is the senior author on the paper. “We don’t know yet if it will stop a heart attack.”

Found in coastal waters in northern Australia and into the waters around the Philippines, the box jellyfish is extremely dangerous. They don’t just float, they can actively swim, jetting at up to four knots through the water. A box jellyfish has about 60 tentacles that can grow up to 10 feet long, and each tentacle has millions of microscopic hooks filled with venom.

Current recommended first aid for a box jelly sting is dousing the area with vinegar. CPR may also be needed to keep the heart beating. (Photo Credit: Auscape / UIG via Getty Images)

There are two types of box jellyfish, the Irukandji, which is tiny, and the Chironex fleckeri, which is almost 10 feet long. “We studied the biggest, most venomous and scary one,” said Neely. “Our drug works on the big beast. We don’t know yet if it works on other jellyfish, but we know it works on the most-deadly one.”

Currently, the recommended first aid for a box jelly sting is dousing the area with vinegar for 30 seconds or running very hot water over the affected area for 20 minutes. If it’s a major sting, continuous CPR is needed to keep the heart beating.

“Our antidote is a medicine that blocks the venom,” said Neely. “You need to get it onto the site within 15 minutes. In our study, we injected it. But the plan would be a spray or a topical cream. The argument against a cream is when you are stung it leaves lots of little stingers in you so if you rub the cream on it might be squeezing more venom into you. But if you spray, it could neutralize what’s left outside of your body.”

Neely and his team are now looking for potential partners to work on making the medicine available to the public.

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